The idea that fingerprints could be used as a means of personal identification was first put forward by Sir William Herschel, District Magistrate of Hooghly District, of Bengal province in 1858. Later, Dr. Henry Faulds gave the idea of tracing a criminal from the latent prints found at the scene of crime and came to the conclusion that no two fingerprints are alike. Based on the idea of Herschel and Faulds, Sir Francis Galton, the renowned English Scientist established scientifically the basic principles of uniqueness and permanency in Finger Prints. It was then that Sir Edward Richard Henry, the Inspector General of Police, Lower Bengal with the able assistance of two Indian officers namely, Khan Bahadur Azizul Haque and Rai Bahadur Hemchandra Bose, developed a system of classification of fingerprints, thereby discarding the anthropometric system of identification. The first ever Finger Print Bureau in the world was established at Writer's Building at Calcutta (now Kolkata) in the year 1897.


Andhra Pradesh Finger Print Bureau was established in the year 1959 through GO Ms No.308 Home (Police, B) Dept., dated 6th Feb., 1959.Subsequently, 18 District Finger Print Units were established in all Districts/Cities head quarters under the modernization of Police Forces in a phased manner between the periods from 1971 to 2010.

Finger Print Bureau functions under the administrative control of the Addl. Director General of Police, CID., A.P. Hyderabad and under the technical control of Director, Finger Print Bureau, CID., A.P. Hyderabad.

The main objective of the Bureau collects and maintains a large number of FP Records for using them for Criminal Investigation. The Ten Digit FP Records are being maintained in the Bureau for the purpose of establishing both identity and past Criminal history of a suspect and for identifying the offenders from the chance Finger Prints located at the Scenes of Crime. At present the FPB is having 5.75 Lakhs fingerprint records and 42,200 Unsolved Chance Prints in the database of FACTS-5 system.


The Finger Print Bureau collects and maintains a large number of FP Records for using them for Criminal Investigation.

Two kinds of Records are maintained in the Bureau viz., The Ten Digit Finger Print Record for the purpose of establishing both identity and past Criminal history of a suspect and the Single Digit FP Record for identifying the offenders from the chance Finger Prints located at the Scenes of Crime. In the Ten Digit Collection, FP Slips of those persons convicted for the offences mentioned in order No: 769 of A.P.P.M Part-I are maintained according to classification wise. The Henry System of Classification has been adopted for the working of the Ten Digit System.

  1. Furnishing criminal antecedents, providing the background of any individual detained under suspicious circumstances.
  2. Tracing of out-of-view criminals.
  3. Establishing the identity of unidentified dead bodies.
  4. Identifying of accused persons from the records maintained.
  5. Identifying of criminals through Chance Prints lifted from Scenes of Crime.
  6. Assisting in apprehending proclaimed offenders, absconders and persons who escaped from prisons.
  7. Giving opinion on Documents bearing disputed finger prints referred by various Courts, Financial Institutions and Investigating Agencies.
  8. Imparting training to Police Officers.

Persons whose Fingerprints are to be taken for Record

The fingerprints of all persons mentioned below (juveniles, adults, males, females or eunuchs) should ordinarily be taken for permanent record:

  1. All persons convicted of offences under Chapters XII and XVII of the Indian Penal Code, which are punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term of one year or more.
  2. All persons convicted of any offence under Chapter VI of Indian Penal Code, or of sabotage and subversive activities against the State.
  3. All persons convicted of offences under Sections 170, 302 and 304 (murder for gain), 328, 338,304A, 465 to 477-A and 489-A to 489-D of the IPC.
  4. All persons convicted under the Arms, NDPS or Excise Act, who are suspected to be smugglers in arms, Narcotics etc. entailing punishment on reconviction.
  5. All persons convicted of smuggling gold, currency and valuable articles under the Foreign Exchange Maintenance Act.
  6. All persons ordered to execute bonds under sections 109 and 110 of the CrPC.
  7. All traffickers in women and children who are convicted under sections 363 to 373 of the Indian Penal Code.
  8. All persons convicted under Section 5 of the Telegraph Wires (Unlawful Possession) Act, 1950, for unlawful possession of telegraph wires.
  9. All persons convicted Railway Property (Unlawful Possession) Act, 1966.
  10. All professional criminals and persons of dangerous character externed from any area under any State Act.
  11. All foreigners externed under the Foreigners Act, 1946.
  12. All members or leaders of organized crime syndicates and approvers in gang, dacoity and criminal conspiracy cases.
  13. Persons whose measurements or photographs are taken but released discharged without trial or acquittal shall be destroyed unless the court, District Magistrates or SDM for reasons to be recorded in writing otherwise directs (U/s 7 of the Identification of Prisoners Act).
  14. All persons convicted for attempt or abetment (Section 511 or Section 109/114 of the Indian Penal Code) and criminal conspiracy (Section 120-B of the Indian Penal Code) for offences mentioned in this Order.
  15. All Indian nationals convicted outside India of any offence for which fingerprints have been received at the State Bureau from those countries.
  16. All international criminals and absconders whose fingerprints are sent to the State Bureau from countries outside India.
  17. All persons convicted under the Explosive Substances Act, 1908.
  18. All persons convicted under the Official Secrets Act, 1923.
  19. All persons convicted under Sections 126 and 128 of the Indian Railways Act, 1890.
  20. Any other person whose fingerprints are ordered to be maintained by the Government of India from time to time subject to the provisions of Identification of Prisoners Act.
  21. Foreigners who are convicted for offences punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term of one year or upwards under the Indian Penal Code.
  22. Persons registered under the Andhra Pradesh Habitual Offenders Act, 1962.
  23. All persons, not specially provided for above, regarding whom it is considered desirable that there should be a permanent record. These include:
    1. Persons of disreputable antecedents,
    2. Persons who take part in violent crimes, whether political or non-political, involving injury to body, life or property and or indulge in rigging elections by impersonating or booth capturing by violent means and convicted for the relevant offences at lease once either under IPC of RP Act of known habitually to indulge and organize such activities including those for gain or other advantages.
  24. the following classes of persons connected with political and terrorist offences:
    1. persons who use aliases or otherwise, endeavor to conceal their identity to facilitate commission of terrorist crime, or political offences and
    2. persons about whom, because of their hidden activities, it is desirable that there should be permanent record.
Note:- The fingerprints of persons, who are locals and who have been convicted of offences of trivial nature, need not ordinarily be taken.

Persons whose Fingerprints should not be Taken

Fingerprints of lepers should not be taken on any account. Fingerprints of persons suffering from contagious and infectious diseases should not be taken until completely recovered.

FACTS-5 (Finger Print Analysis Criminal Tracing System)

Automated Finger Print Identification System called FACTS (Finger Print Analysis and Criminal Tracing System) developed by CMC Limited has been installed on July 1999 for the Computerization of Finger Print Bureau operations of the entire State.

FACTS Functionality:

FACTS provide functionality for creating and maintaining a database of Ten Digit Fingerprint slips of the Finger Print Bureau. The daily arrested persons ten digit FP slips and the Latent prints developed from the scene of crime can be compared/searched on the database.

The Latent Prints (also known as Chance prints) are the partial prints developed at the scene of crime. In the manual system, the search and comparison of these latent prints is restricted to a small single digit collection taking lot of time to give final report. FACTS provide a facility to search the latent prints on the entire ten digit database and retrieve more accurate results. The FACTS at SFPB is connected to the 18 FACTS remote query work Stations located at each of the Districts/Commissionarates.

The Chance prints of the Districts are first searched on their local database maintained on the District Systems. The unsolved chance prints are transmitted to the FACTS at SFPB for search against the Ten Digit database which communicates result to the search initiating District.

Once a search slip or a Chance print is traced, the textual details stored in the Criminal Attribute Database can be made available to the Investigating Officer. Absconder and Death Reports being maintained by Finger Print Bureau can also be maintained in FACTS. The System is fully operational at State Finger Print Bureau, AP, Hyderabad and in 18 Districts/Commissionarates.