ORIGIN OF FINGER PRINT SCIENCE
The idea that fingerprints could be used as a means of personal identification was first put forward by Sir William Herschel, District Magistrate of Hooghly District, of Bengal province in 1858. Later, Dr. Henry Faulds gave the idea of tracing a criminal from the latent prints found at the scene of crime and came to the conclusion that no two fingerprints are alike. Based on the idea of Herschel and Faulds, Sir Francis Galton, the renowned English Scientist established scientifically the basic principles of uniqueness and permanency in Finger Prints. It was then that Sir Edward Richard Henry, the Inspector General of Police, Lower Bengal with the able assistance of two Indian officers namely, Khan Bahadur Azizul Haque and Rai Bahadur Hemchandra Bose, developed a system of classification of fingerprints, thereby discarding the anthropometric system of identification. The first ever Finger Print Bureau in the world was established at Writer's Building at Calcutta (now Kolkata) in the year 1897.
AP FINGER PRINT BUREAU
Andhra Pradesh Finger Print Bureau was established in the year 1959 through GO Ms No.308 Home (Police, B) Dept., dated 6th Feb., 1959.Subsequently, 18 District Finger Print Units were established in all Districts/Cities head quarters under the modernization of Police Forces in a phased manner between the periods from 1971 to 2010.
Finger Print Bureau functions under the administrative control of the Addl. Director General of Police, CID., A.P. Hyderabad and under the technical control of Director, Finger Print Bureau, CID., A.P. Hyderabad.
The main objective of the Bureau collects and maintains a large number of FP Records for using them for Criminal Investigation. The Ten Digit FP Records are being maintained in the Bureau for the purpose of establishing both identity and past Criminal history of a suspect and for identifying the offenders from the chance Finger Prints located at the Scenes of Crime. At present the FPB is having 5.75 Lakhs fingerprint records and 42,200 Unsolved Chance Prints in the database of FACTS-5 system.
The Finger Print Bureau collects and maintains a large number of FP Records for using them for Criminal Investigation.
Two kinds of Records are maintained in the Bureau viz., The Ten Digit Finger Print Record for the purpose of establishing both identity and past Criminal history of a suspect and the Single Digit FP Record for identifying the offenders from the chance Finger Prints located at the Scenes of Crime. In the Ten Digit Collection, FP Slips of those persons convicted for the offences mentioned in order No: 769 of A.P.P.M Part-I are maintained according to classification wise. The Henry System of Classification has been adopted for the working of the Ten Digit System.
Persons whose Fingerprints are to be taken for Record
The fingerprints of all persons mentioned below (juveniles, adults, males, females or eunuchs) should ordinarily be taken for permanent record:
Persons whose Fingerprints should not be Taken
Fingerprints of lepers should not be taken on any account. Fingerprints of persons suffering from contagious and infectious diseases should not be taken until completely recovered.
FACTS-5 (Finger Print Analysis Criminal Tracing System)
Automated Finger Print Identification System called FACTS (Finger Print Analysis and Criminal Tracing System) developed by CMC Limited has been installed on July 1999 for the Computerization of Finger Print Bureau operations of the entire State.
FACTS provide functionality for creating and maintaining a database of Ten Digit Fingerprint slips of the Finger Print Bureau. The daily arrested persons ten digit FP slips and the Latent prints developed from the scene of crime can be compared/searched on the database.
The Latent Prints (also known as Chance prints) are the partial prints developed at the scene of crime. In the manual system, the search and comparison of these latent prints is restricted to a small single digit collection taking lot of time to give final report. FACTS provide a facility to search the latent prints on the entire ten digit database and retrieve more accurate results. The FACTS at SFPB is connected to the 18 FACTS remote query work Stations located at each of the Districts/Commissionarates.
The Chance prints of the Districts are first searched on their local database maintained on the District Systems. The unsolved chance prints are transmitted to the FACTS at SFPB for search against the Ten Digit database which communicates result to the search initiating District.
Once a search slip or a Chance print is traced, the textual details stored in the Criminal Attribute Database can be made available to the Investigating Officer. Absconder and Death Reports being maintained by Finger Print Bureau can also be maintained in FACTS. The System is fully operational at State Finger Print Bureau, AP, Hyderabad and in 18 Districts/Commissionarates.